A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei, Part 3: Spectral Lines

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Scientific Paper
Title A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei, Part 3: Spectral Lines
Author(s) Charles William Lucas, Joseph C Lucas
Keywords {{{keywords}}}
Published 2003
Journal Foundations of Science
Volume 6
Number 1
No. of pages 17


A physical Geometrical Packing Model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the physical toroidal Ring Model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman. From the physical characteristics of real electrons from experiments by Compton this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements. The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation are based upon simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explains the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reason why the Periodic Table has only seven periods. The Toroidal Model is extended in this article to describe the emission spectra of hydrogen and other atoms. Use is made of some of the authors? standing wave experiments in large toroidal springs. The resulting model accurately predicts the same emission spectral lines as the Quantum Model including the fine structure and hyperfine structure. Moreover it goes beyond the Dirac Quantum Model of the atom to predict 64 new lines or transitions in the extreme ultraviolet emission spectra of hydrogen that have been confirmed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Physics Laboratory at Berkeley from its NASA rocket experiment data.