# Difference between revisions of "David Tombe"

Frederick David Tombe
Born 1958
Residence Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Scientific career
Fields Electromagnetism, Centrifugal Force, Coriolis Force, Aether, Gravity

Frederick David Tombe is a physics and applied mathematics graduate who attended Queen's University Belfast from 1978 to 1982.

## Scientific Research in his own Words

I started electromagnetism in earnest in late 1981, and due to my newfound knowledge of vector field theory I was able to see that the modern textbook derivation of Maxwell's displacement current was totally unsatisfactory. James Clerk Maxwell was a nineteenth century Scottish physicist who is credited with having collectively formulated all the laws of electromagnetism, and in doing so having united electricity, magnetism, and optics into a single topic. During the winter of 1981-82 I was struggling with three aspects in electromagnetism which appeared to have no satisfactory explanations. I was asking the lecturers these three questions,

1. In the magnetic force F = qvxB, what is the velocity term v measured relative to?
2. Where can we see a formal proof of the theory of conservation of energy in connection with magnetic repulsion and attraction between bar magnets? I never doubted that energy is conserved in these cases, but I was having difficulty finding an appropriate expression for magnetic potential energy. The well-known magnetic vector potential did not answer the question. Apart from Lenz's law which touches on the issue, there seemed to be nothing in the textbooks relating to conservation of magnetic energy.
3. How is Maxwell's displacement current correctly derived? The textbook derivation of Maxwell's displacement current is highly dubious. It does not derive the transverse term which is used in the derivation of the EM wave equation, and even at that, the irrotational term which is being derived in its place, is being added as an extra term to Ampère's Circuital Law, rather than being extracted from within the already existing electric current term.

There was a tendency for the lecturers to say that it would all become clear when it is taken in conjunction with Einstein's theories of relativity, but I wanted to first know how these matters were resolved before relativity was invented, bearing in mind that Maxwell's equations were published before Einstein was born. On one occasion during that winter of 1981-82, when I questioned a lecturer as to whether there is anybody of renown in the physics world who questions the veracity of Einstein's relativity, he informed me that he had just been reading an article in the Nature journal concerning a certain late Professor Herbert Dingle and his objections to relativity on the grounds of the clock paradox. The article in question revisited an argument that had taken place in the early 1960s between Dingle and another professor called McCrea.

By 2007 I had it all synchronized into a concise aether theory. The summary is that magnetic attraction between two unlike magnetic poles is more fundamentally due to electrostatic attraction between electrons and positrons in an all-pervading sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles. These dipoles align along their mutual rotation axes, electron to positron, in a double helix manner forming magnetic lines of force as per the prevailing magnetic field. Magnetic attraction is therefore primarily electrostatic attraction channeled along a double helix. Magnetic repulsion between like poles on the other hand is caused by centrifugal pressure acting sideways from the lines of force, induced by the rotation of the constituent electron-positron dipoles. Despite the fact that modern physicists deny the reality of centrifugal force, it is actually crucial to the understanding of magnetic repulsion. Fine-grained centrifugal force is the source of pressure in the medium for the propagation of light, and it's the source of the equation E = mc2. But since it is a consequence of absolute rotation, it challenges the modern paradigm that everything is relative and that there are no absolutes, and so it has been wrongly reduced to a fictitious illusion in the literature. Centrifugal force in fact holds the key to the dismantling of the entire Einstein myth.

## Einstein's Big Mistake

Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-1879), who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. The physical medium in question was known to Maxwell as the luminiferous medium although Einstein later referred to it as a Lichtäthers (luminiferous aether). Maxwell provided us with a reasonably clear picture of what the physical structure of this medium would need to be. He proposed that all of space is filled with a sea of molecular vortices comprised of tiny aethereal whirlpools, each surrounded by electric particles. This was an idea, which according to Tesla in 1907, had in essence, long been known to men of old.

Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous ether - which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance. (Nikola Tesla - From his 1907 paper Man’s Greatest Achievement which was published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel.)

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity first appeared in German in a paper entitled "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" which was received for publication in Bern, Switzerland, on 30th June 1905. Translated into English, the title of this paper is On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, and a translation can be viewed here, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Translation:On_the_Electrodynamics_of_Moving_Bodies . The Lorentz transformation equations appeared in this paper, although they had already been broadly established by Hendrik Lorentz and Sir Joseph Larmor in the previous decade, in conjunction with a luminiferous medium! Einstein was inspired by the symmetry inherent in electromagnetic theory which is observed in the case where an electric current is induced in a conducting coil when a bar magnet is moved into it. The result is exactly the same whether the magnet moves into the coil or the coil moves over the magnet. In order to rationalize with this observation, Einstein considered two of Maxwell's equations which happen to exhibit a perfect symmetry when expressed in electrostatic units. This perfect symmetry comes in conjunction with an overt expression of the speed of light. The two equations in question are the differential (curl) version of Ampère’s Circuital Law, with Maxwell's displacement current, and the Maxwell-Faraday Law of Induction (time-varying case), also a differential (curl) equation. Einstein found a way to maintain the mathematical form of these two equations under a Lorentz transformation, although this wasn't able to be demonstrated correctly until Henri Poincaré published his Palermo paper, Sur la dynamique de l'électron”, Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo 21, pp. 129-175 (1-47). This paper was received on 23 July 1905 and published in 1906 in Sicily. Poincaré's Palermo paper introduced the concept of four-vectors, an ingenious mathematical tool which is essential to the analysis, and which exposes the existence of what we now know as four-dimensional space-time. The four-vector invention was in some respects the modification to Sir William Rowan Hamilton's quaternions, that was needed to make them fully useful in electromagnetic theory. Maxwell missed out on this tool, although in his 1873 treatise, he did inadvertently demonstrate the futility of quaternions within the context of electromagnetism. Hamilton, in 1843, had in effect substituted the imaginary part of a complex number with a three-vector. It's as if Poincaré then puts the imaginary part back in again, but this time in place of the scalar component. (The term imaginary is somewhat misleading in the context. It simply refers to the use of the square root of minus-one as an algebraic tool. All physical concepts involved are real.)

The symmetry inherent in Einstein's 1905 Special Theory of Relativity seems to have convinced Einstein that no physical medium is required for the propagation of light waves. He therefore used one absurdity to justify another absurdity. Firstly, it's absurd to suggest that light, being a wave, doesn't require a physical medium of propagation. A wave is by definition, a propagated oscillation in a physical medium. Secondly, it's the symmetry in Einstein’s special relativity which leads to the absurd implication that two clocks in relative motion would each be ticking slower than the other. None of these absurdities would exist if the Lorentz transformation equations where to be applied in conjunction with the luminiferous aether, as they were originally intended to apply. The Lorentz transformation equations are mathematically identical to Einstein's special theory of relativity, but when applied as originally intended by Larmor and Lorentz in conjunction with the luminiferous medium, the physical implications are no longer absurd. Many of the experiments which are claimed today as evidence of Einstein's theories of relativity are in fact merely evidence of the Lorentz aether theory, in conjunction with Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices. The important difference though is, that the aether provides an absolute physical rest frame, entrained within the Earth's gravitational field, and this means that there are no paradoxes associated with time. The time variable in the Lorentz transformation equations simply refers to the frequency of the physical processes within the molecular structure of a moving body. So, when motion through the luminiferous medium causes GPS satellite clocks in orbit to tick slower than the ground clocks, this is simply due to a physical interaction between the caesium atoms within the mechanism of the atomic clocks and the luminiferous medium itself, and we are in no doubt that it is the satellite clocks, and not the ground clocks, which will tick slower as a consequence of this motion. In actual fact, the satellite clocks tick faster than the ground clocks, but this is because of an additional dominant effect related to the Earth's gravitational field strength. Time dilation, within the context of the Lorentz aether theory, will not however involve a slowing down of actual time, and it will not involve any clock paradox since there will be no symmetry. The motion of ponderable matter through Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices will cause a shear interaction that results in an increase in the internal pressure, which will in turn cause all the atomic and molecular processes to slow down. This is just Dan Bernoulli’s Principle. The frequency change in the atomic clocks is not the same thing as the actual time dilation that is inferred by Einstein's special relativity after he foolishly overturned centuries of wisdom by casting out the aether. The Earth will still complete an orbit of the Sun, relative to the background stars, in a time period defined as one year, and this standard of time will apply equally to all observers throughout the universe, no matter how fast they are moving. Their own individual motion cannot alter the Earth’s orbital period around the Sun, and so it cannot alter the measurement of actual time.

In 1920, when Einstein re-introduced the aether during an address at the University of Leiden, it was only a half-baked aether, more aimed at explaining gravity than explaining electromagnetic induction. In fact, it explained neither. Einstein proposed no structural details and it certainly wasn't Maxwell's aether. Ten years later in 1930, Paul Dirac proposed that all space is pervaded by a sea of electrons and positrons. Things were getting back on track again, but unfortunately the Dirac Sea was never applied to electromagnetic wave theory, where it should have been applied. (F.D.T. 1st October 2020)