Difference between revisions of "David Tombe"

From Natural Philosophy Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(→‎Abstracts: Pythagoras's Theorem in Seven Dimensions)
 
(52 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 28: Line 28:
 
By 2007 I had it all synchronized into a concise aether theory. The summary is that magnetic attraction between two unlike magnetic poles is more fundamentally due to electrostatic attraction between electrons and positrons in an all-pervading sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles. These dipoles align along their mutual rotation axes, electron to positron, in a double helix manner forming magnetic lines of force as per the prevailing magnetic field. Magnetic attraction is therefore primarily electrostatic attraction channeled along a double helix. Magnetic repulsion between like poles on the other hand is caused by centrifugal pressure acting sideways from the lines of force, induced by the rotation of the constituent electron-positron dipoles. Despite the fact that modern physicists deny the reality of centrifugal force, it is actually crucial to the understanding of magnetic repulsion. Fine-grained centrifugal force is the source of pressure in the medium for the propagation of light, and it's the source of the equation E = mc<sup>2</sup>. But since it is a consequence of absolute rotation, it challenges the modern paradigm that everything is relative and that there are no absolutes, and so it has been wrongly reduced to a fictitious illusion in the literature. Centrifugal force in fact holds the key to the dismantling of the entire Einstein myth.
 
By 2007 I had it all synchronized into a concise aether theory. The summary is that magnetic attraction between two unlike magnetic poles is more fundamentally due to electrostatic attraction between electrons and positrons in an all-pervading sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles. These dipoles align along their mutual rotation axes, electron to positron, in a double helix manner forming magnetic lines of force as per the prevailing magnetic field. Magnetic attraction is therefore primarily electrostatic attraction channeled along a double helix. Magnetic repulsion between like poles on the other hand is caused by centrifugal pressure acting sideways from the lines of force, induced by the rotation of the constituent electron-positron dipoles. Despite the fact that modern physicists deny the reality of centrifugal force, it is actually crucial to the understanding of magnetic repulsion. Fine-grained centrifugal force is the source of pressure in the medium for the propagation of light, and it's the source of the equation E = mc<sup>2</sup>. But since it is a consequence of absolute rotation, it challenges the modern paradigm that everything is relative and that there are no absolutes, and so it has been wrongly reduced to a fictitious illusion in the literature. Centrifugal force in fact holds the key to the dismantling of the entire Einstein myth.
  
==The Lorentz Transformations==
+
==Einstein's Big Mistake==
The Lorentz transformations can produce the convective term, <b>v</b>x<b>B</b>, from the electrostatic and the time-varying electromagnetic terms. Since this term first appeared in equation (77) of Maxwell’s 1861 paper ''"On Physical Lines of Force"'', as a consequence of Maxwell employing the hydrodynamics of a sea of tiny aethereal vortices, it would be a major coincidence if Lorentz’s aether wasn’t actually one and the same thing as Maxwell’s aether, although Lorentz never provided any details of the physical nature of his aether nor anything about its mechanisms. He was simply into ''ad hoc'' mathematics with an eye to establishing a symmetry which never existed. It’s also of interest to note that this aspect of the Lorentz transformations is not dependent on the ''gamma factor'' which introduces time dilation. As regards the gamma factor, which introduces the relativistic aspects such as length contraction and time dilation, within the context of the Lorentz aether theory, this could simply be an extension of Bernoulli's Principle from its normal domain involving the conservation of potential energy/pressure and kinetic energy/momentum, into the primitive domain of space and time. The motion of ponderable matter through Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices will cause a shear interaction that results in an increase in the internal pressure, which will in turn cause all the atomic and molecular processes to slow down. This is not the same thing as the actual time dilation that is inferred by Einstein's theories after he foolishly cast out the aether. The Earth will still complete an orbit of the Sun, relative to the background stars, in one year, and that's what everybody in the universe will observe. Time dilation within the context of the Lorentz aether theory will not however involve a slowing down of actual time, and it will not involve the clock paradox since there will be no symmetry. The sea of tiny molecular vortices will serve as a physical rest frame within the context of the theory. The gamma factor will be responsible for a Doppler shift in the electric and magnetic field patterns and it will likely need to be modified in order to remove the absurd asymptotic implications. This could be done by using the binomial first order approximation which should introduce a bit more physical reality into the situation.
+
Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-1879), who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. The physical medium in question was known to Maxwell as the ''luminiferous medium'' although Einstein later referred to it as a Lichtäthers (luminiferous aether). Maxwell provided us with a reasonably clear picture of what the physical structure of this medium would need to be. He proposed that all of space is filled with a sea of molecular vortices comprised of tiny aethereal whirlpools, each surrounded by electric particles. This was an idea, which according to Tesla in 1907, had in essence, long been known to men of old.
When Einstein re-introduced the aether in 1920 in his address at the University of Leiden, it was only a half-baked aether which was fit for no purpose. It wasn't until the 1930s, when Dirac introduced a sea of electrons and positrons into all of space, that things were starting to get back on track again, but unfortunately the Dirac sea was never applied to electromagnetism, where it should have been. (F.D.T. 24th February 2020)
+
 
 +
''Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous ether - which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance.''
 +
(Nikola Tesla - From his 1907 paper ''Man’s Greatest Achievement'' which was published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel.)
 +
 
 +
Einstein's ''Special Theory of Relativity'' first appeared in German in a paper entitled "''Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper''" which was received for publication in Bern, Switzerland, on 30th June 1905. Translated into English, the title of this paper is ''On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies'', and a translation can be viewed here, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Translation:On_the_Electrodynamics_of_Moving_Bodies . The Lorentz transformation equations appeared in this paper, although they had already been broadly established by Hendrik Lorentz and Sir Joseph Larmor in the previous decade, ''in conjunction with a luminiferous medium!'' Einstein was inspired by the symmetry inherent in electromagnetic theory which is observed in the case where an electric current is induced in a conducting coil when a bar magnet is moved into it. The result is exactly the same whether the magnet moves into the coil or the coil moves over the magnet. In order to rationalize with this observation, Einstein considered two of Maxwell's equations which happen to exhibit a perfect symmetry when expressed in electrostatic units. This perfect symmetry comes in conjunction with an overt expression of the speed of light. The two equations in question are the differential (curl) version of Ampère’s Circuital Law, ''with Maxwell's displacement current'', and the Maxwell-Faraday Law of Induction (time-varying case), also a differential (curl) equation. Einstein found a way to maintain the mathematical form of these two equations under a Lorentz transformation, although this wasn't able to be demonstrated correctly until Henri Poincaré published his Palermo paper, ''Sur la dynamique de l'électron”, Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo 21, pp. 129-175 (1-47)''. This paper was received on 23 July 1905 and published in 1906 in Sicily. Poincaré's Palermo paper introduced the concept of ''four-vectors'', an ingenious mathematical tool which is essential to the analysis, and which exposes the existence of what we now know as ''four-dimensional space-time''. The four-vector invention was in some respects the modification to Sir William Rowan Hamilton's quaternions, that was needed to make them fully useful in electromagnetic theory. Maxwell missed out on this tool, although in his 1873 treatise, he did inadvertently demonstrate the futility of quaternions within the context of electromagnetism. Hamilton, in 1843, had in effect substituted the imaginary part of a complex number with a ''three-vector''. It's as if Poincaré then puts the imaginary part back in again, but this time in place of the scalar component. (The term ''imaginary'' is somewhat misleading in the context. It simply refers to the use of the square root of minus-one as an algebraic tool. All physical concepts involved are real.)
 +
 
 +
The symmetry inherent in Einstein's 1905 ''Special Theory of Relativity'' seems to have convinced Einstein that no physical medium is required for the propagation of light waves. He therefore used one absurdity to justify another absurdity. Firstly, it's absurd to suggest that light, being a wave, doesn't require a physical medium of propagation. A wave is by definition, a propagated oscillation in a physical medium. Secondly, it's the symmetry in Einstein’s special relativity which leads to the absurd implication that two clocks in relative motion would each be ticking slower than the other.
 +
None of these absurdities would exist if the Lorentz transformation equations where to be applied in conjunction with the luminiferous aether, as they were originally intended to apply. The Lorentz transformation equations are mathematically identical to Einstein's special theory of relativity, but when applied as originally intended by Larmor and Lorentz in conjunction with the luminiferous medium, the physical implications are no longer absurd. Many of the experiments which are claimed today as evidence of Einstein's theories of relativity are in fact merely evidence of the Lorentz aether theory, in conjunction with Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices. The important difference though is, that the aether provides an absolute physical rest frame, entrained within the Earth's gravitational field, and this means that there are no paradoxes associated with time. The time variable in the Lorentz transformation equations simply refers to the frequency of the physical processes within the molecular structure of a moving body. So, when motion through the luminiferous medium causes GPS satellite clocks in orbit to tick slower than the ground clocks, this is simply due to a physical interaction between the caesium atoms within the mechanism of the atomic clocks and the luminiferous medium itself, and we are in no doubt that it is the satellite clocks, and not the ground clocks, which will tick slower as a consequence of this motion. In actual fact, the satellite clocks tick faster than the ground clocks, but this is because of an additional dominant effect related to the Earth's gravitational field strength. Time dilation, within the context of the Lorentz aether theory, will not however involve a slowing down of actual time, and it will not involve any clock paradox since there will be no symmetry. The motion of ponderable matter through Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices will cause a shear interaction that results in an increase in the internal pressure, which will in turn cause all the atomic and molecular processes to slow down. This is just Dan Bernoulli’s Principle. The frequency change in the atomic clocks is not the same thing as the actual time dilation that is inferred by Einstein's special relativity after he foolishly overturned centuries of wisdom by casting out the aether. The Earth will still complete an orbit of the Sun, relative to the background stars, in a time period defined as one year, and this standard of time will apply equally to all observers throughout the universe, no matter how fast they are moving. Their own individual motion cannot alter the Earth’s orbital period around the Sun, and so it cannot alter the measurement of actual time.  
 +
 +
In 1920, when Einstein re-introduced the aether during an address at the University of Leiden, it was only a half-baked aether, more aimed at explaining gravity than explaining electromagnetic induction. In fact, it explained neither. Einstein proposed no structural details and it certainly wasn't Maxwell's aether. Ten years later in 1930, Paul Dirac proposed that all space is pervaded by a sea of electrons and positrons. Things were getting back on track again, but unfortunately the Dirac Sea was never applied to electromagnetic wave theory, where it should have been applied. (F.D.T. 1st October 2020)
  
 
==Abstracts==
 
==Abstracts==
 +
* 2020 - "[[The Fine Structure of Four-Dimensional Space-Time]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339696770_The_Fine_Structure_of_Four-Dimensional_Space-Time Read in full])
 
* 2020 - "[[The Significance of the Poynting Vector]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338898407_The_Significance_of_the_Poynting_Vector Read in full])
 
* 2020 - "[[The Significance of the Poynting Vector]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338898407_The_Significance_of_the_Poynting_Vector Read in full])
 
* 2019 - "[[The Positronium Orbit in the Electron-Positron Sea]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338816847_The_Positronium_Orbit_in_the_Electron-Positron_Sea Read in full])
 
* 2019 - "[[The Positronium Orbit in the Electron-Positron Sea]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338816847_The_Positronium_Orbit_in_the_Electron-Positron_Sea Read in full])
Line 49: Line 59:
 
* 2018 - "[[Straight Line Motion]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7305 Read in full])
 
* 2018 - "[[Straight Line Motion]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7305 Read in full])
 
* 2018 - "[[The Pendulum and the Magnetic Connection]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7259 Read in full])
 
* 2018 - "[[The Pendulum and the Magnetic Connection]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7259 Read in full])
* 2018 - "[[Pythagoras's Theorem in Seven Dimensions]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322559041_Pythagoras's_Theorem_and_Special_Relativity Read in full])
+
* 2018 - "[[Pythagoras's Theorem in Seven Dimensions]]" ([https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322559041_Pythagoras%27s_Theorem_in_Seven_Dimensions Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Induction of Electrostatic Repulsion by Strong Gravity (Maxwell's Equations Extended to Gravity)]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7167 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Induction of Electrostatic Repulsion by Strong Gravity (Maxwell's Equations Extended to Gravity)]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7167 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Field]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7065 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Electromagnetic Radiation in the Near Field]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7065 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether]] ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7057 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether]] ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/7057 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[The Inertial Helicopter]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Gravity/Download/6856 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[The Inertial Helicopter]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Gravity/Download/6856 Read in full])
* 2017 - "[[Atomic Clocks and Gravitational Field Stength]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/6780 Read in full])
+
* 2017 - "[[Atomic Clocks and Gravitational Field Strength]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/6780 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind Einstein's Mass-Energy Equivalence Equation]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/6767 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind Einstein's Mass-Energy Equivalence Equation]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/6767 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Centrifugal Force Between Two Orbital Systems]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/247 Read in full])
 
* 2017 - "[[Centrifugal Force Between Two Orbital Systems]]" ([https://www.gsjournal.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Mechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/247 Read in full])

Latest revision as of 16:57, 3 October 2020

Frederick David Tombe
Frederick David Tombe
Born 1958
Residence Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom
Nationality British
Scientific career
Fields Electromagnetism, Centrifugal Force, Coriolis Force, Aether, Gravity

Frederick David Tombe is a physics and applied mathematics graduate who attended Queen's University Belfast from 1978 to 1982.

Scientific Research in his own Words

I started an undergraduate B.Sc. degree course in physics at Queen's University Belfast in early October 1978 and I took astronomy and applied mathematics as subsidiary subjects. Before October 1978 had ended, I had been introduced in the physics course to Einstein's special theory of relativity as well as being taught that centrifugal force is not a real force. In the same month, on the astronomy course, I was introduced to the concept of stellar aberration. This made me immediately skeptical about Einstein's special theory of relativity on the grounds that it seemed to conflict with the phenomenon of stellar aberration. Stellar aberration analysis applies Galilean vector addition to the velocity of light, even though relativity is founded upon the principle that Galilean addition of velocities does not apply to the speed of light. I became even more skeptical when I realized that the symmetry inherent in the special theory of relativity necessarily contained the absurd implication that two clocks in relative motion would both go slower than each other. This is referred to as the "Clock Paradox" and unbeknownst to me at the time, this matter had already been raised by Professor Herbert Dingle among others. I realized though that to oppose Einstein's special theory of relativity would mean having to oppose its foundation principle which is that the speed of light is a universal constant which doesn't obey Galilean addition of velocities, and opposing this foundation principle would have seemed to be at variance with the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment. The famous Michelson-Morley experiment had measured the speed of light from terrestrial sources six months apart and found no interference fringes that could be due to the Earth's 30km/sec orbital motion around the Sun. The official conclusion is that light is always measured to have the same speed irrespective of the speed of the source, and if we accept this, then Einstein's special theory of relativity follows automatically from Pythagoras's theorem. At that time back in 1978, I was unaware that alternative explanations for the Michelson-Morley experiment had existed in the past, and that they involved a physical medium for the propagation of light known as the luminiferous aether. And so unsure how to resolve the conundrum, I concluded that the mystery could only be solved by obtaining a deeper understanding of the physical nature of light. Reading ahead I saw that the linkage between optics and electromagnetism was dealt with in the more advanced courses in future years, and that they would require a considerable degree of proficiency in vector analysis and calculus, and so I therefore took more interest in the applied maths courses in order to prepare myself in advance for when I would eventually embark on one of these advanced courses in electromagnetism. Meanwhile during the period 1979 to 1981, in conjunction with my applied maths courses, I took a considerable interest in gyroscopes and planetary orbits.

I started electromagnetism in earnest in late 1981, and due to my newfound knowledge of vector field theory I was able to see that the modern textbook derivation of Maxwell's displacement current was totally unsatisfactory. James Clerk Maxwell was a nineteenth century Scottish physicist who is credited with having collectively formulated all the laws of electromagnetism, and in doing so having united electricity, magnetism, and optics into a single topic. During the winter of 1981-82 I was struggling with three aspects in electromagnetism which appeared to have no satisfactory explanations. I was asking the lecturers these three questions,

  1. In the magnetic force F = qvxB, what is the velocity term v measured relative to?
  2. Where can we see a formal proof of the theory of conservation of energy in connection with magnetic repulsion and attraction between bar magnets? I never doubted that energy is conserved in these cases, but I was having difficulty finding an appropriate expression for magnetic potential energy. The well-known magnetic vector potential did not answer the question. Apart from Lenz's law which touches on the issue, there seemed to be nothing in the textbooks relating to conservation of magnetic energy.
  3. How is Maxwell's displacement current correctly derived? The textbook derivation of Maxwell's displacement current is highly dubious. It does not derive the transverse term which is used in the derivation of the EM wave equation, and even at that, the irrotational term which is being derived in its place, is being added as an extra term to Ampère's Circuital Law, rather than being extracted from within the already existing electric current term.

There was a tendency for the lecturers to say that it would all become clear when it is taken in conjunction with Einstein's theories of relativity, but I wanted to first know how these matters were resolved before relativity was invented, bearing in mind that Maxwell's equations were published before Einstein was born. On one occasion during that winter of 1981-82, when I questioned a lecturer as to whether there is anybody of renown in the physics world who questions the veracity of Einstein's relativity, he informed me that he had just been reading an article in the Nature journal concerning a certain late Professor Herbert Dingle and his objections to relativity on the grounds of the clock paradox. The article in question revisited an argument that had taken place in the early 1960s between Dingle and another professor called McCrea.

The first useful breakthrough came around about February 1982 when I found an American textbook, "The Classical Electromagnetic Field", written by Leonard Eyges, which made a brief mention of the fact that Maxwell himself had derived his displacement current differently from how it is done nowadays, and that in his days he had believed in the existence of an aether, and that Maxwell had understood displacement current as being an actual physical displacement in the aether. This drove me to obtain material on Maxwell's original nineteenth century ideas in the hope that the solutions to the problems mentioned above might be found in this realm, and indeed all the solutions were there. Maxwell believed in the existence of a dielectric sea of tiny molecular vortices that are made partly out of aether and partly out of ordinary matter. In March 1982, I concluded that the luminiferous aether of the nineteenth century really does exist, and that it is a dense electric sea of electrons and positrons. This solution then had the additional benefit of solving the riddle of the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment on the grounds that the Earth's gravity entrains a region of the electric sea within its gravitosphere, while orbiting the Sun at 30km/sec. The Michelson-Morley experiment was set up for the purpose of detecting an aether wind as the Earth orbits the Sun, however the gravitationally entrained region of electric sea means that the experiment was shielded from the aether wind, which is why it produced a negative result. This negative result didn't confuse Michelson himself, but it seemed to unnecessarily confuse many other people in the years that followed. In May 1982 I asked my applied maths professor, Benno Moiseiwitsch, if he knows anybody who disagrees with Einstein's theories. He immediately told me about the anti-relativity Professor Richard A. Waldron, who was then the head of mathematics at the nearby Ulster Polytechnic in Jordanstown. I wrote out a preliminary report on my conclusions and posted it to Professor Waldron. He invited me down to discuss the document in June 1982, and at the meeting he informed me about a book by Professor Herbert Dingle called "Science at the Crossroads" which explains all about the omertà in the scientific community. He also explained to me that anti-relativists are divided into two camps. There is the aether camp and there is the Ritzian camp, and Professor Waldron was a Ritzian. The Ritzians don't believe in the aether, instead preferring a ballistic theory in order to explain the constancy of the speed of light. I reject the ballistic theory of light, and on those grounds Prof. Waldron and I parted company, but not before he had provided me with a list of names of those who he believed to be credible anti-relativists, and some of them were in the aether camp. When I noticed on that list the title "A Magnetospheric Aether Drag Theory" by a Dr. Carl A. Zapffe, I went straight to the Polytech library to obtain a copy. I was very impatient to read it. I had now discovered a scientist from Baltimore, Maryland, USA, advocating more or less what I was advocating, only he lacked any structural details. I knew I had to contact this man soon.

I graduated in July 1982 with a B.Sc. degree in physics and applied Mathematics, and by the 2nd August I was at Dr. Zapffe's summer residence in Minnesota. On getting into Dr. Zapffe's car at Brainerd bus station, the first thing that he said to me as he drove off was "In a few years' time they'll get a Michelson interferometer into space, they'll get fringes, and the whole Einstein thing will fall through". I spent a very memorable week with Dr. Zapffe and his family and he provided me with plenty of literature which opened the doors to a worldwide network of anti-relativists. Among these were Dr. Stanisław Kosowski who I visited in Warsaw the following March during the martial law period, and Dr. JP Wesley, an American living in the Black Forest in West Germany, who I visited on the same trip. From the discussions I learned many aspects of the controversy, but I found nobody willing to agree to the electron-positron sea idea. In the following few years, I did a bit of physics teaching, while at the same time being heavily involved in correspondence with anti-relativists worldwide regarding the controversy. In 1985, I decided to completely quit the physics scene altogether as nothing was being achieved. Although I returned intermittently to the controversy over the years, it wasn't until 2004 that I continued the research in earnest. This was prompted when I re-established contact with Dr. Zapffe's next door neighbour in Brainerd. John Remington "Jack" Graham, a lawyer and philosopher, was still interested in the topic and he encouraged me to continue. Following a google search on electron-positron aether, I stumbled across the works of Dr. Menahem Simhony in Jerusalem. I was amazed to discover that Dr. Simhony was also advocating a dense background medium of electrons and positrons, but as a result of having used a totally different but equally valid approach. Simhony was a specialist in Solid State Physics and he had produced a compelling argument involving an analogy with a salt crystal. This bore no relation to the electromagnetic arguments that I had been using, but it produced the same core result. Dr. Simhony had even taken the matter further to the extent of suggesting a structure for the electron-positron medium. He was advocating that these electrons and positrons should be arranged into a cubic lattice array like in the case of a sodium chloride crystal. While at first, I gave this cubic lattice idea serious consideration, I later concluded that it was an impossible structure for the purposes of explaining the electromagnetic forces, and that it hence needed to be modified. After further scrutiny of Maxwell's 1861 paper "On Physical Lines of Force" which I had obtained from the Royal Society at Carlton House Terrace in London, I concluded that the correct array should be a double helix alignment, and in 2006 I began on-line publishing, mainly in the General Science Journal, Episteme Forum, and ZP Energy. Despite my rejection of Dr. Simhony's cubic lattice structure, it should not be overlooked that Dr. Simhony had enlightened me with the first convincing stand-alone derivation of the famous equation E = mc2 which is traditionally attributed to Einstein, and in a manner, which had nothing to do with Einstein's theories. Dr. Simhony showed how this equation is actually just Newton's equation for the speed of a wave in an elastic solid and how it can be applied to electron-positron pair production and annihilation in conjunction with the all-pervading electron-positron sea. I carried this aspect of Simhony's work into my own double helix theory, and on further study of Maxwell's 1861 paper, I realized that Maxwell himself had actually used this equation in Part III (equation 132). A particularly interesting aspect of Maxwell's work is the manner in which he exposed the magnetic field as a centrifugal force field.

By 2007 I had it all synchronized into a concise aether theory. The summary is that magnetic attraction between two unlike magnetic poles is more fundamentally due to electrostatic attraction between electrons and positrons in an all-pervading sea of rotating electron-positron dipoles. These dipoles align along their mutual rotation axes, electron to positron, in a double helix manner forming magnetic lines of force as per the prevailing magnetic field. Magnetic attraction is therefore primarily electrostatic attraction channeled along a double helix. Magnetic repulsion between like poles on the other hand is caused by centrifugal pressure acting sideways from the lines of force, induced by the rotation of the constituent electron-positron dipoles. Despite the fact that modern physicists deny the reality of centrifugal force, it is actually crucial to the understanding of magnetic repulsion. Fine-grained centrifugal force is the source of pressure in the medium for the propagation of light, and it's the source of the equation E = mc2. But since it is a consequence of absolute rotation, it challenges the modern paradigm that everything is relative and that there are no absolutes, and so it has been wrongly reduced to a fictitious illusion in the literature. Centrifugal force in fact holds the key to the dismantling of the entire Einstein myth.

Einstein's Big Mistake

Einstein overlooked the fact that the speed of light, as it occurs in the Lorentz transformation equations, is determined by the density and elasticity of a physical medium which pervades all of space, and which acts as the medium for the propagation of light waves. This fact had already been established by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, (1831-1879), who happened to die in the same year that Einstein was born. The physical medium in question was known to Maxwell as the luminiferous medium although Einstein later referred to it as a Lichtäthers (luminiferous aether). Maxwell provided us with a reasonably clear picture of what the physical structure of this medium would need to be. He proposed that all of space is filled with a sea of molecular vortices comprised of tiny aethereal whirlpools, each surrounded by electric particles. This was an idea, which according to Tesla in 1907, had in essence, long been known to men of old.

Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous ether - which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence, in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance. (Nikola Tesla - From his 1907 paper Man’s Greatest Achievement which was published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel.)

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity first appeared in German in a paper entitled "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" which was received for publication in Bern, Switzerland, on 30th June 1905. Translated into English, the title of this paper is On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, and a translation can be viewed here, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Translation:On_the_Electrodynamics_of_Moving_Bodies . The Lorentz transformation equations appeared in this paper, although they had already been broadly established by Hendrik Lorentz and Sir Joseph Larmor in the previous decade, in conjunction with a luminiferous medium! Einstein was inspired by the symmetry inherent in electromagnetic theory which is observed in the case where an electric current is induced in a conducting coil when a bar magnet is moved into it. The result is exactly the same whether the magnet moves into the coil or the coil moves over the magnet. In order to rationalize with this observation, Einstein considered two of Maxwell's equations which happen to exhibit a perfect symmetry when expressed in electrostatic units. This perfect symmetry comes in conjunction with an overt expression of the speed of light. The two equations in question are the differential (curl) version of Ampère’s Circuital Law, with Maxwell's displacement current, and the Maxwell-Faraday Law of Induction (time-varying case), also a differential (curl) equation. Einstein found a way to maintain the mathematical form of these two equations under a Lorentz transformation, although this wasn't able to be demonstrated correctly until Henri Poincaré published his Palermo paper, Sur la dynamique de l'électron”, Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo 21, pp. 129-175 (1-47). This paper was received on 23 July 1905 and published in 1906 in Sicily. Poincaré's Palermo paper introduced the concept of four-vectors, an ingenious mathematical tool which is essential to the analysis, and which exposes the existence of what we now know as four-dimensional space-time. The four-vector invention was in some respects the modification to Sir William Rowan Hamilton's quaternions, that was needed to make them fully useful in electromagnetic theory. Maxwell missed out on this tool, although in his 1873 treatise, he did inadvertently demonstrate the futility of quaternions within the context of electromagnetism. Hamilton, in 1843, had in effect substituted the imaginary part of a complex number with a three-vector. It's as if Poincaré then puts the imaginary part back in again, but this time in place of the scalar component. (The term imaginary is somewhat misleading in the context. It simply refers to the use of the square root of minus-one as an algebraic tool. All physical concepts involved are real.)

The symmetry inherent in Einstein's 1905 Special Theory of Relativity seems to have convinced Einstein that no physical medium is required for the propagation of light waves. He therefore used one absurdity to justify another absurdity. Firstly, it's absurd to suggest that light, being a wave, doesn't require a physical medium of propagation. A wave is by definition, a propagated oscillation in a physical medium. Secondly, it's the symmetry in Einstein’s special relativity which leads to the absurd implication that two clocks in relative motion would each be ticking slower than the other. None of these absurdities would exist if the Lorentz transformation equations where to be applied in conjunction with the luminiferous aether, as they were originally intended to apply. The Lorentz transformation equations are mathematically identical to Einstein's special theory of relativity, but when applied as originally intended by Larmor and Lorentz in conjunction with the luminiferous medium, the physical implications are no longer absurd. Many of the experiments which are claimed today as evidence of Einstein's theories of relativity are in fact merely evidence of the Lorentz aether theory, in conjunction with Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices. The important difference though is, that the aether provides an absolute physical rest frame, entrained within the Earth's gravitational field, and this means that there are no paradoxes associated with time. The time variable in the Lorentz transformation equations simply refers to the frequency of the physical processes within the molecular structure of a moving body. So, when motion through the luminiferous medium causes GPS satellite clocks in orbit to tick slower than the ground clocks, this is simply due to a physical interaction between the caesium atoms within the mechanism of the atomic clocks and the luminiferous medium itself, and we are in no doubt that it is the satellite clocks, and not the ground clocks, which will tick slower as a consequence of this motion. In actual fact, the satellite clocks tick faster than the ground clocks, but this is because of an additional dominant effect related to the Earth's gravitational field strength. Time dilation, within the context of the Lorentz aether theory, will not however involve a slowing down of actual time, and it will not involve any clock paradox since there will be no symmetry. The motion of ponderable matter through Maxwell's sea of molecular vortices will cause a shear interaction that results in an increase in the internal pressure, which will in turn cause all the atomic and molecular processes to slow down. This is just Dan Bernoulli’s Principle. The frequency change in the atomic clocks is not the same thing as the actual time dilation that is inferred by Einstein's special relativity after he foolishly overturned centuries of wisdom by casting out the aether. The Earth will still complete an orbit of the Sun, relative to the background stars, in a time period defined as one year, and this standard of time will apply equally to all observers throughout the universe, no matter how fast they are moving. Their own individual motion cannot alter the Earth’s orbital period around the Sun, and so it cannot alter the measurement of actual time.

In 1920, when Einstein re-introduced the aether during an address at the University of Leiden, it was only a half-baked aether, more aimed at explaining gravity than explaining electromagnetic induction. In fact, it explained neither. Einstein proposed no structural details and it certainly wasn't Maxwell's aether. Ten years later in 1930, Paul Dirac proposed that all space is pervaded by a sea of electrons and positrons. Things were getting back on track again, but unfortunately the Dirac Sea was never applied to electromagnetic wave theory, where it should have been applied. (F.D.T. 1st October 2020)

Abstracts