*Electrodynamics: Rebirth of an Experimental Science?*

Scientific Paper | |
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Title | Electrodynamics: Rebirth of an Experimental Science? |

Author(s) | Thomas E Phipps |

Keywords | Electrodynamics |

Published | 2005 |

Journal | Proceedings of the NPA |

Volume | 2 |

Pages | 138-153 |

## Abstract

This paper discusses two quite different experiments thqat have independent verified existence of longitudinal electrodynamic forces (denied by the accepted Lorents force law) associated with currents flowing in closed circuits. Both employ versions of a simple 'inertial modulation' method, whereby current flowing within circuit portions of low effective mass exerts reduced observable force actions of those low-mass portions acting upon a separate test portion of greater mass - this effective physical force reduction resulting from *recoil energy* taken up by the low-mass portions. By suitable design, such variations of force-application effectiveness around a circuit can be exploited to spoil the exactness of differentials of force action between current elements, allowing violations of those classical theorems that assert indistinguishability of the Lorentz law from alternatives proposed by Ampere and others. the differences (described by the exact differentials) between these proposed laws are traditionally supposed to integrate to zero around any closed circuit; but that will not be the case if the integrands lose exactness through containing also 'Green's functions' describing inertial (or other) modulations of the *observable* force. In effect, the classical theorems strictly apply only to immobilized (non-recoiling) circuits; e.g., to those of infinite mass in all their parts. The force modulation approach offers a powerful and practical observational method of violating theorems of classical electrodynamics that assert the impossibility of distinguishing force laws differing by exact differentials. We discuss experimental confirmations of this concept and its successful use to verify semi-quantitatively the Ampere law, and empirically disqualify the Lorentz force law.