# Particle Model

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Scientific Theory
Name {{{name}}}
Type Newtonian, Particle
Author(s) Bob de Hilster, David de Hilster
Keywords Newton, gravity, light, infinity
Year 2015
Website http://www.universehack.org

The Particle Model is a model proposed by father-son team Bob de Hilster and David de Hilster that the entire universe and everything in it can be described as particles including light, gravity, electricity, magnetic fields, atomic structure, charge, polarity, refraction, reflection, and mass increase to name a few. The Particle Model can explain events that have no existing physical explanation including the double-slit experiment.

## History

The particle model was developed by Robert and David de Hilster starting in 2006 and continues to this day. The first 10 years occurred in Long Beach California, and continues in Boca Raton Florida.

### Carezani Graviton Experiment

The particle model started with an experiment proposed by Argentinean physicist, Dr. Ricardo Carezani to detect if gravity, a particle known as the "graviton", could be the cause of gravity. The experiment is a variation of the wikipedia:Cavendish Experiment. The experiment was performed as part of the feature-length documentary Einstein Wrong - The Miracle Year directed by David de Hilster in which David asked his father to help with the experiment after Carezani pulled out of the documentary film.

### Calculations

In order to make calculations for the experiment, Bob de Hilster developed a mathematical equation which summed up all the forces of gravitons entering, exiting, and hitting the objects. The model uses the actual geometry and mass of the objects in the experiment rather than use the points masses used in the Newtonian equation. These calculations need a precision of up to 50 decimal places and was written in C++ using a math package for ultra-high precision (up to 150)calculations.

The calculations lead to gravity "curves" that closely matched Newton's gravity curve. The curves match closely in shape, but not in value; but this was enough incentive for Bob to continue his studies even though the experiment did not prove that the graviton was the cause of gravity.

### Gravity is not Free

Following years of study and calculations, Bob de Hilster wrote down his findings in the book Gravity is not Free of which there are four parts. Part 1 explains how David got started in science. Part 2 is the personal story of Bob's work and how it developed over time. Part 3 is a technical explanation with out any personal history. Part 4 is a compilation of papers relating to the gravity work.

### The Speed of Gravity

One of the key aspects for the particle model is the claim that gravity and light both travel at the speed of light. Many scientists, including Newton, claim that gravity is "instantaneous action at a distance". Relativity states that an object cannot go faster than light. However recent experiments in China during an eclipse concluded that the speed of gravity is the same as the speed of light, or nearly so.

Bob was convinced in December of 2008 that the speed of gravity was at or about the speed of light by analyzing the experiments by Maurice Allais (1954 and 1959) and Qian-Shen Wang (1997).

### A Solution to the Wave / Particle Duality

By far the biggest breakthrough and impetus for creating the particle model was a solution to the wikipedia::Wave Particle Duality by Bob de Hilster in April of 2015. While working in a gravity group from members of the CNPS, Bob was looking at possible wave solution to gravity concluding it must be a very low-frequency and low intensity wave.

Following that work, Bob asked the question: "How can I make a particle act like a wave?" It turned out that Bob could not make one particle act like a wave and cause white light. It takes at least three particles and then there are still other problems. It was then that Bob considered the possibility that a stream of particles with repetitive pattern could have a wave length. The peak of the wave would contain many particles and the valley almost none. The wave length is the distance between peaks. Hence: NO WAVE/PARTICLE DUALITY"

### Gravity 2

The particle model took shape up when Bob applied the stream of particles (light) to refraction. It was clear that there was a second gravity. See section "Refraction of light and a New Gravity" But what is it? Having worked on particle gravity for 10 years, Bob made the assumption that this second gravity was a particle. Could it be something else? Of course it could. But Bob's success during that 10 year period left him with one conclusion, there was a second gravity and hence there was a G2 particle whose speed is much faster than light and whose size is much smaller than the electron.

### Electrons, Ionel Dinu, and Infinity

A few months after Bod de Hilster's suggested solution to the wave / particle duality, his son David de Hilster added other aspects to the model that David collected over the years from other scientists working outside the mainstream.

## Introduction to the Particle Model

### Levels of the Universe

The Particle Model proposes that there are multiples levels of the universe which contain particles, atoms, and molecules.

We humans exist in Level 1 where there are two particles, the nucleon (N1) and the gravity 1 particle (G1). The atom is made up of nucleons, which replace the proton and the neutron, and the G1 replaces the electron. There is no electric charge in the particle model, it is a true mechanical model. Molecules and larger objects in Level 1 are made from these atoms. Of course there are multiple atoms which are listed in the Periodic Table of atoms. The atoms, molecules, and larger objects are held together by gravity 2 particles (G2) which come from Level 2.

In Level 2 there are two particles, the nucleon 2 particle (N2) and the gravity 2 particle (G2). These particles are much smaller than the N1 and G1 and are the components of subatomic atoms. Yes, the Particle Model suggests that there are atoms at a level 2, not just particles. There is no direct evidence to show that the N2 particle exists. But there is indirect evidence that the G2 particle exists. See the section on the "Refraction and Light and a New Gravity".

Is there a Level 3 and more? The philosophical concept of infinity suggests that there could be many more levels. Given that there is no evidence, direct or indirect, for level 3, the authors cannot press the issue.

### Particle Characteristics

The N1 particle replaces the proton and the neutron. The N1 is not electrically charged. The nucleus of atoms are held together by G2 gravity. Hence G2 gravity is the nuclear binding force. The value of the mass of the nucleon is not measured in kilograms (Kg). See the section on "N1 and G1 Mass". The speed of the N1 particle is limited by the drag caused by G1 gravity (Newtonian gravity) and is much slower than the speed of light.

The G1 particle is the particle that orbits the nucleus of the atom. As such it has a very high speed, at or about the speed of light. The value of the mass of the G1 is not measured in kilograms (Kg). See the section on "N1 and G1 Mass".

The G2 particles come from subatomic atoms, Level 2 atoms, and have a speed much greater than the speed of light. Yes, greater than the speed of light. See the section on "Refraction of light".

### Key Concepts

#### Light

Probably the most important concept in the Particle Model is its definition of light. Light is "a stream of G1 particles moving at speed 'c' and it has a repetitive pattern". Insert Figure

Figure 1 shows an idealized streams of particles where the peak of the stream has many G1s and the valley of the stream has very few or even none. This stream is based on a perfect sine wave, but can take any form. It can represent a square wave, a triangular wave, a radio wave, and all of the waves in the spectrum.

#### Refraction of Light and a New Gravity

When this concept of light is applied to refraction, the concept of a second gravity was generated. The question asked was: "What force is required to cause the light to bend as it enters a prism?" This is type of question that Newton asked when he observed the motion of the apple and the moon. Figure 2a shows Newtonian gravity while Figure 2b shows the forces required to bend a beam of light. Insert Figure

G1 gravity (Newtonian gravity) acts on apple and the moon. The force lines in Figure 2a are all pointed toward the center of the object. The force lines in Figure 2b do not point that way. Newtonian gravity moves large objects while the force lines in Figure 2b moves light (streams of G1 particles). Clearly, if the direction is different and what moves is different, then maybe there is a second gravity (G2) that is the cause of refraction.

Bob de Hilster has stated several times that: "You have to give Einstein credit. He said gravity bends light. He just picked the wrong gravity".

#### N1 and G1 Mass

Mass is defined in the "Definitions" section. If you want to know the value of mass, we use a scale like the ones in the chemistry lab. These scales compare the gravitational force on the unknown object versus the gravitational force on a set of known standards. This is only possible when measuring atoms, molecules, and larger objects. Measuring the mass of the G1 particle using G1 gravity does not work. If gravity is caused by the G1 particle, it will only bounce off of another G1. G1 gravity is described in the section titles "Gravity". This means that the mass of the G1 cannot have a value in terms of kilograms. The same is true of the N1 particle.

The G2 particle is the atomic binding force that holds the nucleus together and keeps the G1 particle in orbit. It is acting gravitationally. So we can measure the mass of the N1 and G1 using G2 gravity, but there is no scale to do this and there is no standard. Much work has to be done!

## Detailed Descriptions

This section provides specific details for gravity, light, magnetics, electrostatics, circuits, and chemistry. They are explained using a mechanical model with no electric charge. Just particles in motion.

### Particle Interactions

The basic interaction of particles with other particles and larger objects are the same when explaining gravity, light, magnetics, electrostatics, circuits, and chemistry.

Level 1 particles, G1 and N1, are elastic and bounce off of each other. Level 1 particles can pass through atoms and molecules. They can pass all the way through or they can hit other Level 1 particles and scatter. The G1 particle can be trapped by an atom or molecule and become a G1 orbital (like an electron orbiting a nucleus).

Level 2 particles, G2 and N2, are elastic and bounce off of each other. Level 2 particles can pass through Level 1 particles and larger objects. They can pass all the way through or they can hit other Level 2 particles and scatter. The G2 particle can be trapped by a subatomic atom become a G2 orbital.

### Gravity

#### G1 Gravity

G1 Gravity is based on the gravity concept developed by Georges L. Le Sage. Yes, Wikipedia clearly states that this model of gravity is convincingly discredited. []

Any object made of atoms, molecules, and larger objects of these, will develop a G1 gravitational field. This replaces Newtonian gravity but is considered more accurate. Newtonian gravity assumes that all of the atoms and molecules are located at the center of gravity of the object. G1 gravity takes the geometry of the object into consideration. The G1 particle interacts with each atom of the head of the hammer and along the body of the handle, not just at one point.

G1 particles come from all the stars in the universe. These are low intensity streams of G1 particles moving at or about the speed of 'c'. The particles come at the earth from all directions. They can pass all the way through, hit a G1 or N1 and scatter, or be trapped as a G1 orbital. When the G1 hits it not only scatters but it pushes the atom. This results in fewer G1s leaving the earth than are entering. An object on the surface of the earth is constantly being pushed up by fewer G1s and pushed down by more G1s giving a net pushing force downward toward the gravitational center of the earth.

#### G2 Gravity

There is no direct evidence of Newtonian gravity or G1 gravity. We observe the motion of the apple and the moon and suggest that there is a force called gravity. There is no direct evidence of G2 gravity. We observe the bending of light, the attraction of magnets, and the electron flow in circuits and suggest there is a force we call Gravity 2.

G2 particles come from all the stars in the universe. These are low intensity streams of G2 particles moving at or about the speed of 'c squared' (Estimated). The particles come at the earth from all directions. They can pass all the way through, hit a G2 or N2 and scatter, or be trapped as a G2 orbital. When the G2 hits, it not only scatters but it pushes the subatomic atom. This results in fewer G2s leaving the earth than are entering. An object on the surface of the earth is constantly being pushed up by fewer G2s and pushed down by more G1s giving a net pushing force downward toward the gravitational center of the earth. The G2 gravitational force around the earth is the cause of light refraction and our blue sky.

Caveat: The direction of G2 gravity does not always match the direction of G1 gravity. This means there is more to the generation of G2 gravity than is stated above. We need a more clear understanding of G2 gravity and so there is more work to be done.

#### Gravitational Attraction

The earth and the moon are being pushed towards each other by the G1 particles passing through both objects. When they hit, the G1 scatters and the object is pushed. Figure x shows the path of two opposing G1 particles. The loss of G1s through the earth causes a reduction of the G1s toward the moon. Hence there are more G1s pushing the moon towards the earth than there are G1s pushing the moon away from the earth. Although we talk about a net force on the moon towards the earth, the reality is the forces occur in both directions all the time.

For the same reason, the earth is being pushed towards the moon. According to the equations developed by the particle model the force on the earth and the moon are exactly the same. The acceleration of the earth is less than the acceleration of the moon due to the values of mass assigned to the earth and moon. A better way to say the same thing is to state: "The mass of the earth and moon are assigned sing the measured value of their mutual acceleration.

## Definitions

One assumption: The universe is made up of objects that move.

### Space

Space is a man made concept for locating objects. The dimensions of space are in meters.

### Time

Time is a man made concept for measuring motion. The units of time are in seconds.

### Mass

Mass is not real. It is an assigned property that helps describe motion. The value of mass is assigned to each object relative a standard, the 1 kilogram standard.