*Particle Structure Causes Discrete Fundamental Charge e*

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Scientific Paper | |
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Title | Particle Structure Causes Discrete Fundamental Charge e |

Read in full | Link to paper |

Author(s) | Thomas N Lockyer |

Keywords | {{{keywords}}} |

Published | 2012 |

Journal | Proceedings of the NPA |

Volume | 9 |

No. of pages | 4 |

Pages | 322-325 |

**Read the full paper** here

## Abstract

Paul Dirac, in 1931, attempted to determine why the fundamental charge has exactly the same value (e) for both the electron and proton. His attempt was mathematical, and he (mistakenly) theorized there had to be a fixed value "magnetic monopole". I find that the electron, positron, muon and proton, all are constructed with geometry, that fixes the value of fundamental charge, the same for all. Basic particle structures are outlined here and the fundamental charge is shown to be a constant, because charge density times the particle current loop area, is equal to the fundamental charge (e) exactly, independent of cube particle size.