Hubble's law
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Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that:
 Objects observed in deep space  extragalactic space, 10 megaparsecs (Mpc) or more  are found to have a red shift, interpreted as a relative velocity away from Earth;
 This Doppler shiftmeasured velocity, of various galaxies receding from the Earth, is approximately proportional to their distance from the Earth for galaxies up to a few hundred megaparsecs away.^{[1]}^{[2]}
Hubble's law is considered the first observational basis for the expansion of the universe and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang model.^{[3]}^{[4]} The motion of astronomical objects due solely to this expansion is known as the Hubble flow.^{[5]}
Although widely attributed to Edwin Hubble, the law was first derived from the general relativity equations, in 1922, by Alexander Friedmann who published a set of equations, now known as the Friedmann equations, showing that the universe might expand, and presenting the expansion speed if this was the case.^{[6]} Then Georges Lemaître, in a 1927 article, proposed the expansion of the universe and suggested an estimated value of the rate of expansion, which when corrected by Hubble became known as the Hubble constant.^{[3]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]} However, the term "constant" is somewhat of a misnomer, the Hubble constant is the current value of the Hubble parameter , which changes over time. Moreover, two years later Edwin Hubble confirmed the existence of cosmic expansion, and determined a more accurate value for the constant that now bears his name.^{[10]} Hubble inferred the recession velocity of the objects from their redshifts, many of which were earlier measured and related to velocity by Vesto Slipher in 1917.^{[11]}^{[12]}^{[13]}^{[14]}
The law is often expressed by the equation v = H_{0}D, with H_{0} the constant of proportionality  Hubble constant  between the "proper distance" D to a galaxy, which can change over time, unlike the comoving distance, and its velocity v, i.e. the derivative of proper distance with respect to cosmological time coordinate. See Uses of the proper distance for some discussion of the subtleties of this definition of 'velocity'. Also, the SI unit of H_{0} is s^{−1}, but it is most frequently quoted in (km/s)/Mpc, thus giving the speed in km/s of a galaxy 1 megaparsec (3.09×10^{19} km) away. The reciprocal of H_{0} is the Hubble time.
Contents
 1 Observed values
 2 Discovery
 3 Interpretation
 4 Determining the Hubble constant
 5 Derivation of the Hubble parameter
 6 Units derived from the Hubble constant
 7 See also
 8 Notes
 9 References
 10 Further reading
 11 External links
Observed values
Date published  Hubble constant (km/s)/Mpc 
Observer  Citation  Remarks / methodology 

20171016  Template:Val  The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration  ^{[15]}  Measurements are independent of a cosmic ‘distance ladder'; the gravitationalwave analysis directly estimates the luminosity distance out to cosmological scales. 
20161122  Template:Val  Hubble Space Telescope  ^{[16]}  Uses time delays between multiple images of distant variable sources produced by strong gravitational lensing. 
20160713  Template:Val  SDSSIII Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey  ^{[17]}  Baryon acoustic oscillations 
20160517  Template:Val  Hubble Space Telescope  ^{[18]}  Type Ia supernova, the uncertainty is expected to go down by a factor of more than two with upcoming Gaia measurements and other improvements. 
201502  Template:Val  Planck Mission  ^{[19]}^{[20]}  Results from an analysis of PlanckTemplate:'s full mission were made public on 1 December 2014 at a conference in Ferrara, Italy. A full set of papers detailing the mission results were released in February 2015. 
20131001  Template:Val  Cosmicflows2  ^{[21]}  Comparing redshift to other distance methods, including TullyFisher, Cepheid variables, and Type I supernovae 
20130321  Template:Val  Planck Mission  ^{[22]}^{[23]}^{[24]}^{[25]}^{[26]}  The ESA Planck Surveyor was launched in May 2009. Over a fouryear period, it performed a significantly more detailed investigation of cosmic microwave radiation than earlier investigations using HEMT radiometers and bolometer technology to measure the CMB at a smaller scale than WMAP. On 21 March 2013, the Europeanled research team behind the Planck cosmology probe released the mission's data including a new CMB allsky map and their determination of the Hubble constant. 
20121220  Template:Val  WMAP (9years)  ^{[27]}  
2010  Template:Val  WMAP (7years), combined with other measurements.  ^{[28]}  These values arise from fitting a combination of WMAP and other cosmological data to the simplest version of the ΛCDM model. If the data are fit with more general versions, H_{0} tends to be smaller and more uncertain: typically around Template:Val although some models allow values near Template:Val.^{[29]} 
2010  Template:Val  WMAP only (7years).  ^{[28]}  
200902  Template:Val  WMAP (5years). combined with other measurements.  ^{[30]}  
200902  Template:Val  WMAP only (5years)  ^{[30]}  
2007  Template:Val  WMAP (3years)  ^{[31]}  
200608  Template:Val  Chandra Xray Observatory  ^{[32]}  
200105  Template:Val  Hubble Space Telescope  ^{[33]}  This project established the most precise optical determination, consistent with a measurement of H_{0} based upon SunyaevZel'dovich effect observations of many galaxy clusters having a similar accuracy. 
prior to 1996  50–90 (est.)  ^{[34]}  
early 1970s  ~55 (est.)  Allan Sandage and Gustav Tammann  ^{[35]}  
1958  75 (est.)  Allan Sandage  ^{[36]}  This was the first good estimate of H_{0}, but it would be decades before a consensus was achieved. 
1956  180  Humason, Mayall and Sandage  ^{[35]}  
1929  500  Edwin Hubble, Hooker telescope  ^{[37]}^{[35]}^{[38]} 
Discovery
A decade before Hubble made his observations, a number of physicists and mathematicians had established a consistent theory of the relationship between space and time by using Einstein's field equations of general relativity. Applying the most general principles to the nature of the universe yielded a dynamic solution that conflicted with the thenprevailing notion of a static universe.
FLRW equations
In 1922, Alexander Friedmann derived his Friedmann equations from Einstein's field equations, showing that the Universe might expand at a rate calculable by the equations.^{[39]} The parameter used by Friedmann is known today as the scale factor which can be considered as a scale invariant form of the proportionality constant of Hubble's law. Georges Lemaître independently found a similar solution in 1927. The Friedmann equations are derived by inserting the metric for a homogeneous and isotropic universe into Einstein's field equations for a fluid with a given density and pressure. This idea of an expanding spacetime would eventually lead to the Big Bang and Steady State theories of cosmology.
Lemaitre's Equation
In 1927, two years before Hubble published his own article, the Belgian priest and astronomer Georges Lemaître was the first to publish research deriving what is now known as Hubble's Law. According to the Canadian astronomer Sidney van den Bergh, "The 1927 discovery of the expansion of the Universe by Lemaitre was published in French in a lowimpact journal. In the 1931 highimpact English translation of this article a critical equation was changed by omitting reference to what is now known as the Hubble constant.".^{[40]} It is now known that the alterations in the translated paper were carried out by Lemaitre himself.^{[8]}^{[41]}
Shape of the universe
Before the advent of modern cosmology, there was considerable talk about the size and shape of the universe. In 1920, the famous ShapleyCurtis debate took place between Harlow Shapley and Heber D. Curtis over this issue. Shapley argued for a small universe the size of the Milky Way galaxy and Curtis argued that the Universe was much larger. The issue was resolved in the coming decade with Hubble's improved observations.
Cepheid variable stars outside of the Milky Way
Edwin Hubble did most of his professional astronomical observing work at Mount Wilson Observatory, home to the world's most powerful telescope at the time. His observations of Cepheid variable stars in spiral nebulae enabled him to calculate the distances to these objects. Surprisingly, these objects were discovered to be at distances which placed them well outside the Milky Way. They continued to be called "nebulae" and it was only gradually that the term "galaxies" took over.
Combining redshifts with distance measurements
The parameters that appear in Hubble’s law: velocities and distances, are not directly measured. In reality we determine, say, a supernova brightness, which provides information about its distance, and the redshift z = ∆λ/λ of its spectrum of radiation. Hubble correlated brightness and parameter z.
Combining his measurements of galaxy distances with Vesto Slipher and Milton Humason's measurements of the redshifts associated with the galaxies, Hubble discovered a rough proportionality between redshift of an object and its distance. Though there was considerable scatter (now known to be caused by peculiar velocities – the 'Hubble flow' is used to refer to the region of space far enough out that the recession velocity is larger than local peculiar velocities), Hubble was able to plot a trend line from the 46 galaxies he studied and obtain a value for the Hubble constant of 500 km/s/Mpc (much higher than the currently accepted value due to errors in his distance calibrations). (See cosmic distance ladder for details.)
At the time of discovery and development of Hubble's law, it was acceptable to explain redshift phenomenon as a Doppler shift in the context of special relativity, and use the Doppler formula to associate redshift z with velocity. Today, in the context of general relativity, velocity between distant objects depends on the choice of coordinates used, and therefore, the redshift can be equally described as a Doppler shift or a cosmological shift (or gravitational) due to the expanding space, or some combination of the two.^{[44]}
Hubble Diagram
Hubble's law can be easily depicted in a "Hubble Diagram" in which the velocity (assumed approximately proportional to the redshift) of an object is plotted with respect to its distance from the observer.^{[45]} A straight line of positive slope on this diagram is the visual depiction of Hubble's law.
Cosmological constant abandoned
After Hubble's discovery was published, Albert Einstein abandoned his work on the cosmological constant, which he had designed to modify his equations of general relativity to allow them to produce a static solution, which he thought was the correct state of the universe. The Einstein equations in their simplest form model generally either an expanding or contracting universe, so Einstein's cosmological constant was artificially created to counter the expansion or contraction to get a perfect static and flat universe.^{[46]} After Hubble's discovery that the Universe was, in fact, expanding, Einstein called his faulty assumption that the Universe is static his "biggest mistake".^{[46]} On its own, general relativity could predict the expansion of the Universe, which (through observations such as the bending of light by large masses, or the precession of the orbit of Mercury) could be experimentally observed and compared to his theoretical calculations using particular solutions of the equations he had originally formulated.
In 1931, Einstein made a trip to Mount Wilson to thank Hubble for providing the observational basis for modern cosmology.^{[47]}
The cosmological constant has regained attention in recent decades as a hypothesis for dark energy.^{[48]}
Interpretation
The discovery of the linear relationship between redshift and distance, coupled with a supposed linear relation between recessional velocity and redshift, yields a straightforward mathematical expression for Hubble's Law as follows:
where
 is the recessional velocity, typically expressed in km/s.
 H_{0} is Hubble's constant and corresponds to the value of (often termed the Hubble parameter which is a value that is time dependent and which can be expressed in terms of the scale factor) in the Friedmann equations taken at the time of observation denoted by the subscript 0. This value is the same throughout the Universe for a given comoving time.
 is the proper distance (which can change over time, unlike the comoving distance, which is constant) from the galaxy to the observer, measured in mega parsecs (Mpc), in the 3space defined by given cosmological time. (Recession velocity is just v = dD/dt).
Hubble's law is considered a fundamental relation between recessional velocity and distance. However, the relation between recessional velocity and redshift depends on the cosmological model adopted, and is not established except for small redshifts.
For distances D larger than the radius of the Hubble sphere r_{HS} , objects recede at a rate faster than the speed of light (See Uses of the proper distance for a discussion of the significance of this):
Since the Hubble "constant" is a constant only in space, not in time, the radius of the Hubble sphere may increase or decrease over various time intervals. The subscript '0' indicates the value of the Hubble constant today.^{[42]} Current evidence suggests that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating (see Accelerating universe), meaning that, for any given galaxy, the recession velocity dD/dt is increasing over time as the galaxy moves to greater and greater distances; however, the Hubble parameter is actually thought to be decreasing with time, meaning that if we were to look at some fixed distance D and watch a series of different galaxies pass that distance, later galaxies would pass that distance at a smaller velocity than earlier ones.^{[50]}
Redshift velocity and recessional velocity
Redshift can be measured by determining the wavelength of a known transition, such as hydrogen αlines for distant quasars, and finding the fractional shift compared to a stationary reference. Thus redshift is a quantity unambiguous for experimental observation. The relation of redshift to recessional velocity is another matter. For an extensive discussion, see Harrison.^{[51]}
Redshift velocity
The redshift z is often described as a redshift velocity, which is the recessional velocity that would produce the same redshift if it were caused by a linear Doppler effect (which, however, is not the case, as the shift is caused in part by a cosmological expansion of space, and because the velocities involved are too large to use a nonrelativistic formula for Doppler shift). This redshift velocity can easily exceed the speed of light.^{[52]} In other words, to determine the redshift velocity v_{rs}, the relation:
is used.^{[53]}^{[54]} That is, there is no fundamental difference between redshift velocity and redshift: they are rigidly proportional, and not related by any theoretical reasoning. The motivation behind the "redshift velocity" terminology is that the redshift velocity agrees with the velocity from a lowvelocity simplification of the socalled FizeauDoppler formula^{[55]}
Here, λ_{o}, λ_{e} are the observed and emitted wavelengths respectively. The "redshift velocity" v_{rs} is not so simply related to real velocity at larger velocities, however, and this terminology leads to confusion if interpreted as a real velocity. Next, the connection between redshift or redshift velocity and recessional velocity is discussed. This discussion is based on Sartori.^{[56]}
Recessional velocity
Suppose R(t) is called the scale factor of the Universe, and increases as the Universe expands in a manner that depends upon the cosmological model selected. Its meaning is that all measured proper distances D(t) between comoving points increase proportionally to R. (The comoving points are not moving relative to each other except as a result of the expansion of space.) In other words:
 ^{[57]}
where t_{0} is some reference time. If light is emitted from a galaxy at time t_{e} and received by us at t_{0}, it is red shifted due to the expansion of space, and this redshift z is simply:
Suppose a galaxy is at distance D, and this distance changes with time at a rate d_{t}D . We call this rate of recession the "recession velocity" v_{r}:
We now define the Hubble constant as
and discover the Hubble law:
From this perspective, Hubble's law is a fundamental relation between (i) the recessional velocity contributed by the expansion of space and (ii) the distance to an object; the connection between redshift and distance is a crutch used to connect Hubble's law with observations. This law can be related to redshift z approximately by making a Taylor series expansion:
If the distance is not too large, all other complications of the model become small corrections and the time interval is simply the distance divided by the speed of light:
 or
According to this approach, the relation cz = v_{r} is an approximation valid at low redshifts, to be replaced by a relation at large redshifts that is modeldependent. See velocityredshift figure.
Observability of parameters
Strictly speaking, neither v nor D in the formula are directly observable, because they are properties now of a galaxy, whereas our observations refer to the galaxy in the past, at the time that the light we currently see left it.
For relatively nearby galaxies (redshift z much less than unity), v and D will not have changed much, and v can be estimated using the formula where c is the speed of light. This gives the empirical relation found by Hubble.
For distant galaxies, v (or D) cannot be calculated from z without specifying a detailed model for how H changes with time. The redshift is not even directly related to the recession velocity at the time the light set out, but it does have a simple interpretation: (1+z) is the factor by which the Universe has expanded while the photon was travelling towards the observer.
Expansion velocity vs relative velocity
In using Hubble's law to determine distances, only the velocity due to the expansion of the Universe can be used. Since gravitationally interacting galaxies move relative to each other independent of the expansion of the Universe,^{[58]} these relative velocities, called peculiar velocities, need to be accounted for in the application of Hubble's law.
The Finger of God effect is one result of this phenomenon. In systems that are gravitationally bound, such as galaxies or our planetary system, the expansion of space is a much weaker effect than the attractive force of gravity.
Exponentiality
While current evidence suggests that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, Hubble's Law implies that all derivatives of the expansion of the universe are increasing. This is readily seen as the comoving distance, , is proportional to its own time derivative, v. Solving the relation for time yields
,
where is the distance at which a galaxy is first measured at and is the time since said measurement, thus the velocity of a galaxy can be expressed as . Solving the integral subsequently yields , with the implication that the comoving distance between two galaxies increases exponentially as time goes on. This lines up with current observations, however; it has not been shown for derivatives of distance above acceleration.
The above relations only hold so long as the Hubble parameter, , is constant; which it is presumed not to be.^{[59]} In order for the acceleration of the expansion of the universe to stop, however; the Hubble parameter must be inversely proportional to time. That is, for some constant , giving us a formula for the comoving distance of a galaxy . Importantly, is a constant in this scenario, leading to a static universe. As a result, the exponential expansion of the universe and its time derivatives are dependent on , or how quickly the Hubble parameter is changing over time.
Idealized Hubble's Law
The mathematical derivation of an idealized Hubble's Law for a uniformly expanding universe is a fairly elementary theorem of geometry in 3dimensional Cartesian/Newtonian coordinate space, which, considered as a metric space, is entirely homogeneous and isotropic (properties do not vary with location or direction). Simply stated the theorem is this:
 Any two points which are moving away from the origin, each along straight lines and with speed proportional to distance from the origin, will be moving away from each other with a speed proportional to their distance apart.
In fact this applies to nonCartesian spaces as long as they are locally homogeneous and isotropic; specifically to the negatively and positively curved spaces frequently considered as cosmological models (see shape of the universe).
An observation stemming from this theorem is that seeing objects recede from us on Earth is not an indication that Earth is near to a center from which the expansion is occurring, but rather that every observer in an expanding universe will see objects receding from them.
Ultimate fate and age of the universe
The value of the Hubble parameter changes over time, either increasing or decreasing depending on the value of the socalled deceleration parameter , which is defined by
In a universe with a deceleration parameter equal to zero, it follows that H = 1/t, where t is the time since the Big Bang. A nonzero, timedependent value of simply requires integration of the Friedmann equations backwards from the present time to the time when the comoving horizon size was zero.
It was long thought that q was positive, indicating that the expansion is slowing down due to gravitational attraction. This would imply an age of the Universe less than 1/H (which is about 14 billion years). For instance, a value for q of 1/2 (once favoured by most theorists) would give the age of the Universe as 2/(3H). The discovery in 1998 that q is apparently negative means that the Universe could actually be older than 1/H. However, estimates of the age of the universe are very close to 1/H.
Olbers' paradox
The expansion of space summarized by the Big Bang interpretation of Hubble's Law is relevant to the old conundrum known as Olbers' paradox: if the Universe were infinite, static, and filled with a uniform distribution of stars, then every line of sight in the sky would end on a star, and the sky would be as bright as the surface of a star. However, the night sky is largely dark. Since the 17th century, astronomers and other thinkers have proposed many possible ways to resolve this paradox, but the currently accepted resolution depends in part on the Big Bang theory and in part on the Hubble expansion. In a universe that exists for a finite amount of time, only the light of a finite number of stars has had a chance to reach us yet, and the paradox is resolved. Additionally, in an expanding universe, distant objects recede from us, which causes the light emanating from them to be redshifted and diminished in brightness.^{[60]}
Dimensionless Hubble parameter
Instead of working with Hubble's constant, a common practice is to introduce the dimensionless Hubble parameter, usually denoted by h, and to write the Hubble's parameter H_{0} as h × 100 km s^{−1} Mpc^{−1}, all the uncertainty relative of the value of H_{0} being then relegated to h.^{[61]} If a subscript is presented after h, it refers to the value of h used in that text's preceding calculation, and is equal to H_{0} / 100. Currently h = 0.678, which can be represented as h_{0.678}. This should not be confused with the dimensionless value of Hubble's constant, usually expressed in terms of Planck units, with current value of H_{0}×t_{P} = 1.18 × 10^{−61}.
Determining the Hubble constant
The value of the Hubble constant is estimated by measuring the redshift of distant galaxies and then determining the distances to the same galaxies (by some other method than Hubble's law). Uncertainties in the physical assumptions used to determine these distances have caused varying estimates of the Hubble constant.^{[3]}
The observations of astronomer Walter Baade led him to define distinct "populations" for stars (Population I and Population II). The same observations led him to discover that there are two types of Cepheid variable stars. Using this discovery he recalculated the size of the known universe, doubling the previous calculation made by Hubble in 1929.^{[62]}^{[63]}^{[64]} He announced this finding to considerable astonishment at the 1952 meeting of the International Astronomical Union in Rome.
Earlier measurement and discussion approaches
For most of the second half of the 20th century the value of was estimated to be between 50 and 90 (km/s)/Mpc.
The value of the Hubble constant was the topic of a long and rather bitter controversy between Gérard de Vaucouleurs, who claimed the value was around 100, and Allan Sandage, who claimed the value was near 50.^{[34]} In 1996, a debate moderated by John Bahcall between Sidney van den Bergh and Gustav Tammann was held in similar fashion to the earlier ShapleyCurtis debate over these two competing values.
This previously wide variance in estimates was partially resolved with the introduction of the ΛCDM model of the Universe in the late 1990s. With the ΛCDM model observations of highredshift clusters at Xray and microwave wavelengths using the SunyaevZel'dovich effect, measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and optical surveys all gave a value of around 70 for the constant.^{[citation needed]}
More recent measurements from the Planck mission indicate a lower value of around 67.^{[22]}
See table of measurements above for many recent and older measurements.
Acceleration of the expansion
A value for measured from standard candle observations of Type Ia supernovae, which was determined in 1998 to be negative, surprised many astronomers with the implication that the expansion of the Universe is currently "accelerating"^{[65]} (although the Hubble factor is still decreasing with time, as mentioned above in the Interpretation section; see the articles on dark energy and the ΛCDM model).
Derivation of the Hubble parameter
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Start with the Friedmann equation:
where is the Hubble parameter, is the scale factor, G is the gravitational constant, is the normalised spatial curvature of the Universe and equal to −1, 0, or +1, and is the cosmological constant.
Matterdominated universe (with a cosmological constant)
If the Universe is matterdominated, then the mass density of the Universe can just be taken to include matter so
where is the density of matter today. We know for nonrelativistic particles that their mass density decreases proportional to the inverse volume of the Universe, so the equation above must be true. We can also define (see density parameter for )
so Also, by definition,
and
where the subscript nought refers to the values today, and . Substituting all of this into the Friedmann equation at the start of this section and replacing with gives
Matter and dark energydominated universe
If the Universe is both matterdominated and dark energy dominated, then the above equation for the Hubble parameter will also be a function of the equation of state of dark energy. So now:
where is the mass density of the dark energy. By definition, an equation of state in cosmology is , and if this is substituted into the fluid equation, which describes how the mass density of the Universe evolves with time, then
If w is constant, then
Therefore, for dark energy with a constant equation of state w, . If this is substituted into the Friedman equation in a similar way as before, but this time set , which assumes a spatially flat universe, then (see Shape of the universe)
If the dark energy derives from a cosmological constant such as that introduced by Einstein, it can be shown that . The equation then reduces to the last equation in the matterdominated universe section, with set to zero. In that case the initial dark energy density is given by^{[66]}
 and
If dark energy does not have a constant equationofstate w, then
and to solve this, must be parametrized, for example if , giving
Other ingredients have been formulated recently.^{[67]}^{[68]}^{[69]}
Units derived from the Hubble constant
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Hubble time
The Hubble constant has units of inverse time; the Hubble time t_{H} is simply defined as the inverse of the Hubble constant,^{[70]} i.e. = 14.4 billion years. This is slightly different from the age of the universe 13.8 billion years. The Hubble time is the age it would have had if the expansion had been linear, and it is different from the real age of the universe because the expansion isn't linear; they are related by a dimensionless factor which depends on the massenergy content of the universe, which is around 0.96 in the standard LambdaCDM model.
We currently appear to be approaching a period where the expansion is exponential due to the increasing dominance of vacuum energy. In this regime, the Hubble parameter is constant, and the universe grows by a factor e each Hubble time:
Over long periods of time, the dynamics are complicated by general relativity, dark energy, inflation, etc., as explained above.
Hubble length
The Hubble length or Hubble distance is a unit of distance in cosmology, defined as cH_{0}^{−1} — the speed of light multiplied by the Hubble time. It is equivalent to 4,550 million parsecs or 14.4 billion light years. (The numerical value of the Hubble length in light years is, by definition, equal to that of the Hubble time in years.) The Hubble distance would be the distance between the Earth and the galaxies which are currently receding from us at the speed of light, as can be seen by substituting D = c/H_{0} into the equation for Hubble's law, v = H_{0}D.
Hubble volume
The Hubble volume is sometimes defined as a volume of the Universe with a comoving size of c/H_{0}. The exact definition varies: it is sometimes defined as the volume of a sphere with radius c/H_{0}, or alternatively, a cube of side c/H_{0}. Some cosmologists even use the term Hubble volume to refer to the volume of the observable universe, although this has a radius approximately three times larger.
See also
 Cosmology
 Dark energy
 Dark matter
 Tests of general relativity
 Accelerating expansion of the universe
Notes
 ↑ Riess, A.; et al. (September 1998). "Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant". The Astronomical Journal. 116 (3): 1009–1038. arXiv:astroph/9805201 . Bibcode:1998AJ....116.1009R. doi:10.1086/300499.
 ↑ Perlmutter, S.; et al. (June 1999). "Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 HighRedshift Supernovae". The Astrophysical Journal. 517 (2): 565–586. arXiv:astroph/9812133 . Bibcode:1999ApJ...517..565P. doi:10.1086/307221.
 ↑ ^{3.0} ^{3.1} ^{3.2} Overbye, Dennis (20 February 2017). "Cosmos Controversy: The Universe Is Expanding, but How Fast?". New York Times. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
 ↑ Coles, P., ed. (2001). Routledge Critical Dictionary of the New Cosmology. Routledge. p. 202. ISBN 0203164571.
 ↑ "Hubble Flow". The Swinburne Astronomy Online Encyclopedia of Astronomy. Swinburne University of Technology. Retrieved 20130514.
 ↑ Friedman, A: Über die Krümmung des Raumes, Z. Phys. 10 (1922), 377–386. (English translation in: Gen. Rel. Grav. 31 (1999), 1991–2000.)
 ↑ Lemaître, G. (1927). "Un univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques". Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles A (47): 49–59. Bibcode:1927ASSB...47...49L. Partially translated in Lemaître, G. (1931). "Expansion of the universe, A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of extragalactic nebulae". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 91: 483–490. Bibcode:1931MNRAS..91..483L. doi:10.1093/mnras/91.5.483.
 ↑ ^{8.0} ^{8.1} Livio, M. (2011). "Lost in translation: Mystery of the missing text solved". Nature. 479 (7372): 171. Bibcode:2011Natur.479..171L. doi:10.1038/479171a. PMID 22071745.
 ↑ Livio, M.; Riess, A. (2013). "Measuring the Hubble constant". Physics Today. 66 (10): 41. Bibcode:2013PhT....66j..41L. doi:10.1063/PT.3.2148.
 ↑ Hubble, E. (1929). "A relation between distance and radial velocity among extragalactic nebulae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 15 (3): 168–73. Bibcode:1929PNAS...15..168H. doi:10.1073/pnas.15.3.168. PMC 522427 . PMID 16577160.
 ↑ Slipher, V.M. (1917). "Radial velocity observations of spiral nebulae". The Observatory. 40: 304–306. Bibcode:1917Obs....40..304S.
 ↑ Longair, M. S. (2006). The Cosmic Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 109. ISBN 0521474361.
 ↑ Nussbaumer, Harry (2013). 'Slipher's redshifts as support for de Sitter's model and the discovery of the dynamic universe' In Origins of the Expanding Universe: 19121932. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 25–38.Physics ArXiv preprint
 ↑ O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac (2013). The Contribution of V.M. Slipher to the discovery of the expanding universe in 'Origins of the Expanding Universe'. Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 49–62.Physics ArXiv preprint
 ↑ The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and The Virgo Collaboration; The 1M2H Collaboration; The Dark Energy Camera GWEM Collaboration and the DES Collaboration; The DLT40 Collaboration; The Las Cumbres Observatory Collaboration; The VINROUGE Collaboration; The MASTER Collaboration (20171016). "A gravitationalwave standard siren measurement of the Hubble constant". Nature. advance online publication. arXiv:1710.05835 . Bibcode:2017Natur.551...85A. doi:10.1038/nature24471. ISSN 14764687.
 ↑ Bonvin, Vivien; Courbin, Frédéric; Suyu, Sherry H.; et al. (20161122). "H0LiCOW – V. New COSMOGRAIL time delays of HE 0435−1223: H_{0} to 3.8 per cent precision from strong lensing in a flat ΛCDM model". MNRAS. 465 (4): 4914–4930. arXiv:1607.01790 . Bibcode:2017MNRAS.465.4914B. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3006.
 ↑ Grieb, Jan N.; Sánchez, Ariel G.; SalazarAlbornoz, Salvador (20160713). "The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSSIII Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the Fourier space wedges of the final sample". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: stw3384. arXiv:1607.03143 . Bibcode:2017MNRAS.467.2085G. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3384.
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 ↑ Block, David (2012). 'Georges Lemaitre and Stigler's law of eponymy' in Georges Lemaitre: Life, Science and Legacy (Holder and Mitton ed.). Springer. pp. 89–96.
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As we look toward more and more distant galaxies, the name "constant" becomes increasingly inaccurate.
 ↑ Chase, S. I.; Baez, J. C. (2004). "Olbers' Paradox". The Original Usenet Physics FAQ. Retrieved 20131017. See also Asimov, I. (1974). "The Black of Night". Asimov on Astronomy. Doubleday. ISBN 038504111X.
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References
 Hubble, E. P. (1937). The Observational Approach to Cosmology. Clarendon Press. LCCN 38011865.
 Kutner, M. (2003). Astronomy: A Physical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521529271.
 Liddle, A. R. (2003). An Introduction to Modern Cosmology (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0470848359.
Further reading
 Freedman, W. L.; Madore, B. F. (2010). "The Hubble Constant". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 48: 673. arXiv:1004.1856 . Bibcode:2010ARA&A..48..673F. doi:10.1146/annurevastro082708101829.
External links
 NASA's WMAP  Big Bang Expansion: the Hubble Constant
 The Hubble Key Project
 The Hubble Diagram Project
 Merrifield, Michael (2009). "Hubble Constant". Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.