The Evolution of Matter Through Cosmological Time

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Scientific Paper
Title The Evolution of Matter Through Cosmological Time
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Author(s) James Carter
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Published 2010
Journal Proceedings of the NPA
Volume 7
No. of pages 12
Pages 68-79

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Abstract

This history of the universe is based on the single assumption that the mass of the electron gradually decreases over time. Except for the exceptions produced by this assumption, all of the other well established physical laws and constants of the standard model of physics remain intact. Near the beginning of the universe, the proton and the electron had identical masses and were a Primordial Matter/ Antimatter Pair. After a chain annihilation of about 256 cycles, the electron's mass had decreased to the point where it could no longer annihilate with the proton. This left the 2256 electrons and protons that we have in the universe today. At this stage, protons and electrons could combine to form neutrons but not atoms. Long after, at the point where the electron became small enough to couple with a proton into a hydrogen atom, the neutrons began to decay and hydrogen atoms began to emit large quantities of photons. This initial burst of photons had the same wavelengths as the 2.7˚ Cosmic Blackbody Radiation spectrum of today. Since this very cold time, the temperature for hydrogen radiation has increased from 2.7˚ K to about 3000˚ K. The rate of the electron's gradual mass decrease can be determined by measuring the Hubble Constant. In the past, when the electron had more mass, the atomic spectra from distant galaxies had longer wavelengths and thus appears red shifted to us today. As the electron loses mass, and the atomic spectra heats up, the volume of atoms decreases. Heavy elements at the earth's center lose volume more slowly than the light elements in the earth's crust. It is this effect that drives plate tectonics and causes the continents to separate.