A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei, Part 2: Structure of the Nucleus

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Scientific Paper
Title A Physical Model for Atoms and Nuclei, Part 2: Structure of the Nucleus
Author(s) Charles William Lucas, Joseph C Lucas
Keywords {{{keywords}}}
Published 2002
Journal Foundations of Science
Volume 5
Number 2
No. of pages 12


A physical Geometrical Packing Model for the structure of the atom is developed based on the physical toroidal ring model of elementary particles proposed by Bergman. From the physical characteristics of real electrons from experiments by Compton this work derives, using combinatorial geometry, the number of electrons that will pack into the various physical shells about the nucleus in agreement with the observed structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements.

The constraints used in the combinatorial geometry derivation are based upon Joseph?s simple but fundamental ring dipole magnet experiments and spherical symmetry. From a magnetic basis the model explains the physical origin of the valence electrons for chemical binding and the reason why the periodic table has only seven periods.

The same Geometrical Packing Model is extended to describe the physical geometrical packing of protons and neutrons in the physical shells of the nucleus. It accurately predicts the nuclear ?magic numbers? indicative of nuclear shell structure as well as suggesting the physical origin of the nuclide spin and the liquiddrop features of nuclides.