*Electrodynamic Origin of Gravitational Forces*

Scientific Paper | |
---|---|

Title | Electrodynamic Origin of Gravitational Forces |

Read in full | Link to paper |

Author(s) | Charles William Lucas |

Keywords | electrodynamics, gravity, Bode's Law, red shifts, gravity decay, MOND, red shift decay |

Published | 2011 |

Journal | Proceedings of the NPA |

Volume | 8 |

No. of pages | 12 |

Pages | 375-386 |

**Read the full paper** here

## Abstract

From the derived universal classical electrodynamic contact force law for finite-size elastic particles the force of gravity is identified as a statistical residual force of the fourth order term in v/c due to the vibration of neutral electric dipoles consisting primarily of atomic electrons and nuclear protons plus polarized vibrating neutrons in the nucleus. The gravitational force is calculated and found to be a relativistic version of the customary radial term of Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation plus a new non-radial term. From the radial term the gravitational mass is defined in terms of electrodynamic parameters. The non-radial term gives rise to an (**R ^{.}V**)

**R**

**x**(

**R x V**) force that causes the orbits of the planets about the sun to spiral about a circular orbit giving the appearance of an elliptical orbit tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun with periods in agreement with Bode's Law. The vibrational mechanism causing the gravitational force decays over time giving rise to the cosmic background radiation plus Hubble's Law for red shifts versus distance due to gravitational red shifting. Halton Arp's discovery of quasars bound to galaxies with significantly different red shifts is explained in terms of the younger quasar galaxy's neutral electric dipole vibrations having decayed for a shorter period of time than those of the older and larger associated galaxy. The decay of gravity also explains Tifft's measured decay of the magnitude of red shifts over time and the high velocity of stars in the spiral arms of galaxies.