A Unified Theory of Spin 0 Nuclear Interactions

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Scientific Paper
Title A Unified Theory of Spin 0 Nuclear Interactions
Author(s) Stephan J G Gift
Keywords graviton
Published 1998
Journal Speculations in Science and Technology
Volume 21
Number 3
Pages 143-154


A Gauge Theory that contains the pion triplet as strong force quanta, a quantum theory of gravity and unifies the strong (nuclear) and gravitational interactions is proposed under a relaxation of the requirement of covariance for Lorentz boost transformations. A modified form of local gauge invariance in which the nucleon field phase is allowed to vary with each time point but not each space point leads to the introduction of a new compensatory field. The quanta of this field are massless spin 0 particles that propagate at the speed of light. They are interpreted as gravitons which mediate the Newtonian gravitational force. It is suggested that the universality of the interaction is linked with the conservation of mass. The associated equation of motion yields Newtons Inverse Square Law for the static case and, because of retardation of potentials, gives rise to a precession of planetary orbits. A qualitative indication of the energy loss observed in the binary pulsar PSR1913+16 within the Newtonian framework is also given. A modification of the Yang?Mills invariance is applied to nucleons. It requires the strong interaction between nucleons to be invariant under independent rotations of the isotopic spin at each time point but not each space point. This results in the introduction of a triplet of compensating fields having massless spin 0 quanta that are interpreted as massless pions. An SU(2)?U(1) theory combining isotopic spin and <img alt="lsquo" align="baseline" border="0" src="http://www.springerlink.com/content/x26363g2l821p08g/xxlarge8216.gif" />hypermass<img alt="rsquo" align="baseline" border="0" src="http://www.springerlink.com/content/x26363g2l821p08g/xxlarge8217.gif" /> symmetries is then developed. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking yields three massive particles (along with a Higgs particle) and one massless particle. The three massive particles have mass, spin and charge that identify them as pions, while the single massless spin 0 particle, which couples to the nucleons with a strength proportional to mass, is interpreted as the spin 0 graviton. The model provides a resolution of one of the outstanding puzzles of theoretical physics: why gravity is so much weaker than the other forces of nature.