*Applying the Uncertainty Principle to Single Particle Interactions*

Scientific Paper | |
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Title | Applying the Uncertainty Principle to Single Particle Interactions |

Read in full | Link to paper |

Author(s) | Richard Oldani |

Keywords | uncertainty, indeterminacy |

Published | 2004 |

Journal | Physics Essays |

Volume | 17 |

Number | 1 |

No. of pages | 5 |

**Read the full paper** here

## Abstract

Existing derivations of uncertainty for single particle interactions violate complementarity because they require that the photon exhibit wave and particle behavior simultaneously; and thus singularly. In order to restore physical consistency to quantum theory a model of the photon is proposed having spatial extension equal to the wavelength. As a result uncertainty and indeterminacy must be assigned independent meanings. Uncertainty describes the limit in measurability for instantaneous exchanges of momentum and is due to a photon's particle properties. It is causal in origin and provides a model for the kinematics of quantum theory. Indeterminacy, on the other hand, is statistical in nature and is attributed to the exchange of momentum by time-averaged fields. The need for two limitations on measurability is seen as an extension of the duality principle to measurement theory