Covariance vs. Invariance

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Scientific Paper
Title Covariance vs. Invariance
Author(s) Thomas E Phipps
Keywords Covariance, invariance, Lorentz covariance, Lorentz invariance, Hertzian electromagnetism, twin paradox, relativity theory, collective time, Global Positioning System
Published 2009
Journal Galilean Electrodynamics
Volume 20
Number 1
Pages 3-11


Definitions of invariance and covariance are offered and a non-Einsteinian variety of physics (developed in Ref. 12) is sketched. This employs an invariant covering theory of Maxwell's equations due to Hertz, as well as a ?collective time' patterned upon the clock running-rate correction methods of the Global Positioning System. In this alternative physics invariance plays the same central role that covariance plays in Einstein's physics. Because of its fundamental importance in all relativity criticism, the twin paradox is also discussed.