Mathematical Constraints on Gauge in Maxwellian Electrodynamics

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Scientific Paper
Title Mathematical Constraints on Gauge in Maxwellian Electrodynamics
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Author(s) E Comay
Keywords Classical Electrodynamics, Gauge, Variational Principle, Quantum Mechanics
Published 2008
Journal Apeiron
Volume 15
Number 2
No. of pages 16
Pages 16

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The structure of classical electrodynamics based on the variational principle together with causality and spacetime homogeneity is analyzed. It is proved that in this case the 4-potentials are defined uniquely. On the other hand, the approach where Maxwell equations and the Lorentz law of force are regarded as cornerstones of the theory allows gauge transformations. For this reason, the two theories are not equivalent. A simple example substantiates this conclusion. Quantum physics is linked to the variational principle and it is proved that the same result holds for it. The compatibility of this conclusion with gauge invariance of the Lagrangian density is explained. Several alternative possibilities that may follow this work are pointed out.