New Empirical Clues for the Factor 1.23

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Scientific Paper
Title New Empirical Clues for the Factor 1.23
Author(s) Halton C Arp
Keywords {{{keywords}}}
Published 1999
Journal None
Pages 115-132


The quantization period of the intrinsic redshift of quasars is characterized by the factor 1.23. The origin of this constant is not yet explained, but it could be of fundamental significance if found in other physical phenomena. Because the radiation emitted from quasars is a consequence of the interaction between elementary particles, the masses of leptons, quarks, mesons and baryons are here first investigated. It is found that their masses are related to each other by integer numbers as mk = moBk (where mo is the mass of the first particle in a group and k is the integer number). The quantities B depend on the particular group which the particle belongs to and are found to be simple functions of the fine structure constant, a, and the quasar redshift factor, F ~ 1.23.

The next larger systems are the atomic nuclei. The correlation of atomic weight A with atomic number Z of elements results in an empirical formula with F ? 1.2375. The masses of large gravitational systems are also examined, particularly the solar-system in which there are five subsystems: the first one is the Sun with its planets, and the next four are the planets with their systems of satellites. The correlation of the central mass Mc with the sum of the masses ms of all bodies orbiting the central one, is of the form ms ? const ? (Mc)F, where F is again about 1.22.

The Karlsson formula for the preferred redshifts observed in quasars is derived directly from the Bohr model of the radiating atom using the assumption that electron mass evolves in steps such that me,k = me/Fk. Here F is observationally measured to be close to 1.23.

The relationships found here between the fine structure constant and F and the radiation and gravitational properties of physical systems on all scales would appear to be numerically significant. If this is so, it is hoped this will eventually lead to an understanding of the basic cause of quantization on all scales.