On the Rapid, Electrical Formation of Concretions Containing Soft-Bodied Fossils
|Title||On the Rapid, Electrical Formation of Concretions Containing Soft-Bodied Fossils|
|Read in full||Link to paper|
|Keywords||fossilization, concretions, fulgurites, electrical scarring, lab generated spherules, catastrophism|
|No. of pages||20|
Read the full paper here
In July of 2004 Plasma Physicists Dr. CJ Ransom and Wal Thornhill published results from experiments in which they created stone spheres using electric arcs of varying power and duration on a wide variety of minerals in the laboratory. The observed types of the lab-created spherules included both hollow and solid spheres, single spheres, and also fused pairs and multiples. These are very common morphologies for concretions found in nature. Many other features of the lab created spherules are found in naturally occurring concretions as well. Geologists define a concretion as a discrete stone sphere that formed around a nucleus such as plant or animal which has been fossilized - including soft bodied animals like annelids, crustaceans, and medusa. Though it is often said that three-dimensional soft-bodied fossils are rare, in fact there are excellent examples of soft-bodied fossils on every continent, and they quite often appear inside of concretions and nodules.
Soft-bodied fossils found within concretions from various sites around the world show very little or no breakdown or decomposition, leading some paleontologists to admit that preservation in these cases was a quick process. The exquisite preservation and the life-like positions of the soft-bodied fossils also agree to a near instantaneous formation.
There is now enough observational and experimental evidence to suggest that concretions are rapidly, electrically formed around the nucleus of a living creature, and that the fossilization is the result of electrical transmutation of the elements. Transmutation, like the electrical creation of stone spherules, is a process which has been observed in experimental lab work from around the world. Recent experiments by Andrea Rossi using powdered nickel to obtain a stable fusion reaction at low temperatures result in the transmutation of nickel into copper, in the presence of catalysts and hydrogen atoms. The use of granulated nickel and common gases are much closer to the natural conditions in which fossilization has taken place than all previous experiments.
In this paper, broad evidence for the electrical formation of fossiliferous concretions is gathered from electrical experiments, plasma physics, and microscopic analysis; from Anthony Peratt's study of worldwide ancient petroglyphs in comparison with extremely high energy plasma instabilities; and from common themes of lightning bolts petrifying creatures in native mythology (eg Zeus, Thunderbirds) on at least 4 continents. Fossiliferous concretions from 5 locations are discussed, and the surrounding areas are also examined for evidence of high temperature, electrical sculpting.