*The Schwarzschild Solution and its Implications for Gravitational Waves*

Scientific Paper | |
---|---|

Title | The Schwarzschild Solution and its Implications for Gravitational Waves |

Read in full | Link to paper |

Author(s) | Stephen John Crothers |

Keywords | gravity, Schwarzschild Solution, Gravitational Waves, black hole |

Published | 2009 |

Journal | None |

No. of pages | 28 |

**Read the full paper** here

## Abstract

The so-called 'Schwarzschild solution' is **not** Schwarzschild's solution, but a corruption, due to David Hilbert (December 1916), of the Schwarzschild/Droste solution, wherein *m* is allegedly the mass of the source of a gravitational field and the quantity *r* is alleged to be able to go down to zero (although no valid proof of this claim has ever been advanced), so that there are two alleged 'singularities', one at *r = 2m* and another at *r = 0*. It is routinely asserted that *r = 2m* is a 'coordinate' or 'removable' singularity which denotes the so-called 'Schwarzschild radius' (event horizon) and that the 'physical' singularity is at *r = 0*. The quantity *r* in the so-called 'Schwarzschild solution' has **never** been rightly identified by the physicists, who, although proposing many and varied concepts for what *r* therein denotes, effectively **treat it** as a radial distance from the claimed source of the gravitational field at the origin of coordinates. The consequence of this is that the intrinsic geometry of the metric manifold has been violated. It is easily proven that the said quantity *r* is in fact the inverse square root of the Gaussian curvature of the spherically symmetric geodesic surface in the spatial section of the 'Schwarzschild solution' and so does not in itself define any distance whatsoever in that manifold. With the correct identification of the associated Gaussian curvature it is also easily proven that there is only one singularity associated with all Schwarzschild metrics, of which there is an infinite number that are equivalent. Thus, the standard removal of the singularity at *r = 2m* is erroneous, as the alleged singularity at *r = 0* does not exist, very simply demonstrated herein. This has major implications for the localisation of gravitational energy, i.e. gravitational waves. Schwarzschild's actual solution **forbids black holes** !