*Derivation of the Universal Force Law, Part 2*

Scientific Paper | |
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Title | Derivation of the Universal Force Law, Part 2 |

Author(s) | Charles William Lucas |

Keywords | {{{keywords}}} |

Published | 2006 |

Journal | Foundations of Science |

Volume | 9 |

Number | 3 |

No. of pages | 8 |

## Abstract

A new universal electromagnetic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss?s laws, Amp?re?s generalized law, Faraday?s law, and Lenz?s law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electromagnetic force law incorporates the effects of the self-fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It can account for gravity, inertia, and relativistic effects including radiation. The non-radial terms of the force law explain the experimentally observed curling of plasma currents, the tilting of the orbits of the planets with respect to the equatorial plane of the sun, and certain inertial gyroscope motions. The derived force law satisfies Newton?s third law, conservation of energy and momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach?s Principle. The mathematical properties of equations for the fundamental empirical laws and also Hooper?s experimental data showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. The Lorentz force is derived as a consequence of Galilean invariance. The most general form of the force law, derived using all the higher order terms of the Galilean transformation, is assumed to be exact for all phenomena on all size scales. Arguments are given that this force law is superior to all previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamic, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction force laws.