*The Universal Electrodynamic Force*

Scientific Paper | |
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Title | The Universal Electrodynamic Force |

Read in full | Link to paper |

Author(s) | Charles William Lucas |

Keywords | {{{keywords}}} |

Published | 2011 |

Journal | Proceedings of the NPA |

Volume | 8 |

No. of pages | 10 |

Pages | 387-396 |

**Read the full paper** here

## Abstract

A classical universal electrodynamic force law for real finite-size elastic charged particles is derived in a proper axiomatic fashion by solving simultaneously the fundamental empirical laws of classical electrodynamics, i.e. Gauss's laws, Ampere's generalized law, Faraday's law, and Lenz's law assuming Galilean invariance. This derived version of the electrodynamic force law incorporates the effects of the self fields of real finite-size elastic particles as observed in particle scattering experiments. It satisfies Newton's 3rd Law, conservation of energy, conservation of momentum, conservation of charge, and Mach's Principle. Hooper's experiments showing that the fields of a moving charge move with the charge require that the electrodynamic force be a contact force based on field extensions of the charge instead of action-at-a-distance. These field extensions of the charges in the universe physically define the fabric of space or the ether of General Relativity theory and Newton's Universal Gravitation Force. The Lorentz force is shown to be derived from Galilean invariance instead of Lorentz invariance. The derived force law has a combination of spherical and chiral symmetry which is experimentally observed in the structure of matter on all size scales including elementary particles, nuclei, atoms, molecules, crystals, solar system, galaxies, and the structure of the observable universe as a whole. This universal electrodynamic force law appears to be superior (theoretically and experimentally) to previous force laws, i.e. relativistic quantum electrodynamic, gravitational, inertial, strong interaction and weak interaction.